Women's Health Tips

Understanding Normal and Abnormal PAP Results

Pap Tests

Developed by Dr. George Papanicolaou in the 1940s, the Pap test identifies cervical changes and disease. When detected early, precancerous and cancerous changes are treated easily and effectively.

The Normal Cervix

The cervix is the bottom portion of the uterus. It has an opening to the cervical canal that leads to the uterus. The normal cervix is covered with scalelike squamous cells and the canal is lined with tall, narrow, columnar cells. The zone where the two meet, the transformation zone (T-zone), is where the cells are constantly being replaced. The transformation zone is the most likely area for abnormal cells to develop.

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Early Menopause Glossary

Amenorrhoea: Complete absence or stoppage of periods

Angina: A disease marked by brief attacks of chest pain

Anovulation: Failure to ovulate

Benign: Not cancer (non-cancerous)

Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy: The removal of both fallopian tubes and both ovaries

Bioidentical hormone therapy: Some women visit alternative medicine doctors and get a prescription for natural products, which are made from different plant hormones that are like those in a woman’s body. Each prescription is hand-mixed, and the dose can vary from patient to patient

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